How fast does hydrogen electrons travel?
The speed at which hydrogen electrons move through a material depends on their electron configuration.
While an electron can move at the speed of light, electrons can also be accelerated at very high speeds by applying electric fields.
These fields, or magnetic fields, allow electrons to be accelerated much faster than the speed at or around which light can travel.
In this video, researchers from Cornell University and the National Science Foundation (NSF) show how electrons can be accelerated to near the speed for which light could travel through a vacuum using an ionized gas.
The electrons are created when the atoms are heated in an electrolyte to near absolute zero.
The resulting ions of hydrogen and helium, when placed on an electrolytic electrode, move around in a vacuum and accelerate electrons.
These electrons can then be used to create the electron beams that generate the laser light seen in this video.
The NSF’s Ion Dynamics and Electron Devices (IDEM) Facility at Cornell University provides the experimental setup for this video and the work described in the article.
The electron beam that drives the laser pulses is created when electrons are trapped in an ionic liquid.
As the liquid heats up, the ions move around and form a beam of electrons.
When these electrons move around, they form an ion beam.
When the ions are cooled down to a temperature of a few millionths of a degree above absolute zero, they are trapped inside a liquid and begin to form a single-photon laser.
When the ions cool down to near a millionth of a point above absolute, the ion beam becomes a beam.
The energy released is the speed-dependent energy of the ion beams.
To see how this happens, scientists at the NSF IDEM Facility set up a liquid-gas laser trap and placed a small number of high-energy atoms inside the trap to form high-intensity electrons.
The ions were cooled down in a liquid to minus 50 degrees Celsius and then cooled again.
When they cooled to minus 40 degrees Celsius, the high-level ions were excited to about 0.3 volts per kilogram of electrons, which is much higher than the energy produced by an electron in the ion laser.
The ion beam then produced by this high-voltage beam was converted into an electron beam by a process known as electron spin scattering.
This electron beam then was used to generate a beam in the infrared light of the laser trap.
While the ions in the trap were cooled to temperatures near absolute 0, the researchers measured how long it took the electrons to move through the trap and compare that to how long electrons would be in the same environment if they had not been cooled.
The researchers found that electrons in the trapped environment would travel in about 100 milliseconds, or about one billionth of the time the ions were in the liquid.
The researchers are now working to figure out how electrons travel through the liquid in the future and have plans to use the electron beam in their next laser trap setup to produce beams in the visible spectrum.